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Morphology refers to word formation, and linguistic principles thereof. Morphology consists of two types of word formation:

  1. Grammatical morphology, or inflectional morphology: adding grammatical suffixes to words. In English, this is mainly limited to verb conjugation and in noun forms: the -ing forms of verbs (participles and gerunds like sailing), and the past tense forms like -ed (sailed) and irregular verb forms (e.g., swam, swum, taken).
  2. Derivational morphology, or word formation by adding prefixes and suffixes; e.g. nation --> national, international.

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