Difference between revisions of "Colloquialisms"

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[[Category:Academic writing]] [[Category:Vocabulary]]
[[Category:Academic writing]] [[Category:Vocabulary]]  [[Category:Style]]

Revision as of 19:51, 9 August 2019

Colloquialisms refer to expressions that are colloquial or informal, which are not incorrect, but are dispreferred, e.g., for academic and/or formal writing. Some of the terms below are more informal, general, or vague, and are less commonly used in academic writing; the more formal alternatives are preferred.

1 General

Some general issues and features of colloquial writing style.

2 Nouns

In many contexts, these terms might be vague or too non-specific, and would be better if replaced by a more specific noun, which will depend on the context.

colloquial more formal
person, people, someone (often vague) individual, Canadians, researchers, subjects, voters, males, participants ...
thing object, device, item, situation, circumstance, subject, element ...
man males, (male) participants / subjects, male voters, etc.
women females, (female) participants, etc.
part portion, section, sector, segment, aspect
way (e.g., a way to do something) manner, method, means, methodology, instrument, aspect

3 Light verbs

These are common, everyday verbs that are rather non-specific in meaning. These are distinguished from other verbs, in that (1) they are the first verbs learned in the language; (2) they have a great variety of meanings, and thus can be less specific semantically; and (3) they are often used in idioms, set expressions, and collocational expressions. In academic writing, many times it is better if these can be replaced with more specific verbs, and the choice will depend on the context. However, in set expressions like 'get married' it may be difficult to replace them.

light verb more specific
be exist, occur, equal, consist of, comprise (of), typify, appear, seem, tend...
have possess, contain, exhibit ...
In descriptive phrases, have can be replaced with with, e.g. "A patient who had the flu" → "A patient with the flu"
give provide, yield, produce, lead to, impart...
do perform, execute, carry out, implement, manage...
make create, produce, facilitate...
go, run, come proceed, journey, travel, progress, exceed...
set, put place, position, arrange...

4 Phrasal verbs

When possible, phrasal verbs should be replaced with more formal verbs (of Latin origin). For example, many ESL students use find out when a better expression for formal writing would be discover, determine, ascertain. Since phrasal verbs often have many meanings, the choice will depend on the context.

phrasal verb more specific
find out find, discover, ascertain, determine, decide on, assess
go out exit, diminish, leave, depart, extinguish, cease, die, dim, expire, subside, decline, dwindle, recede, quit, retire, withdraw
go around circumvent, circumnavigate, sidestep, ignore, rotate, gyrate, orbit, circumduct, twist, revolve, meander, ramble
take out excise, remove, clear, exclude, omit, extirpate, destroy

5 Adjectives, adverbials, & other modifiers

In many contexts, these terms might be vague or too non-specific, and would be better if replaced by a more specific word, which will depend on the context.

colloquial more formal
bad negative, pejorative, poor, ineffective, adverse...
big, huge large, significant, enormous, incredible, gargantuan, gigantic, massive
good sufficient, excellent, optimal, ideal, studious, prime, positive, effective, beneficial
kind of, sort of somewhat, slightly
a lot of, lots of many, numerous, a large number / amount of

6 Transitional / connector expressions

colloquial more formal
anyway This is used informally for changing topics; in formal writing, simply starting a sentence with a full noun topic, or starting a new paragraph, will often suffice.
besides More formal alternatives are ‘in addition to’ or ‘furthermore’ - e.g., “In addition to these factors, ...”.
like is similar to; for example, such as
like this for example, for instance
nowadays currently, recently
whether or not whether