Difference between revisions of "Korean syllabary"

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Korean syllables: The following is a list of common Korean syllables and associated words of medium to high frequency, for mnemonic purposes.  
Korean syllables: The following is a list of common Korean syllables and associated words of medium to high frequency, for mnemonic purposes.  
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| '''모음''' (母音): || | ㅏㅐㅑㅒ ㅓㅔㅕㅖㅗㅘㅙㅚㅛ ㅜㅝㅞㅟㅠㅡㅢ ㅣ  
| '''모음''' (母音): || | ㅏㅐㅑㅒ ㅓㅔㅕㅖㅗㅘㅙㅚㅛ ㅜㅝㅞㅟㅠㅡㅢ ㅣ  

Revision as of 14:15, 29 July 2020

Korean syllables: The following is a list of common Korean syllables and associated words of medium to high frequency, for mnemonic purposes.

자음 (子音):     ㄱ ㄲㄴ ㄷ ㄸ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅃ ㅅ ㅆ ㅇ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ
모음 (母音): ㅏㅐㅑㅒ ㅓㅔㅕㅖㅗㅘㅙㅚㅛ ㅜㅝㅞㅟㅠㅡㅢ ㅣ



가지 eggplant; 가시 thorn, prickle; fish bone;
각(도) angle (角); 각주 footnote
릴매기 seagull; 갈색 brown
close (eyes); wind (up), coil
갑 case, box, packet; e.g., 지갑 wallet, coin purse; 장갑 glove
price, worth, value
traditional hat, bamboo / horsehair hat, e.g., 삿갓
river; strong
갖다, 갖은 prepare, be equipped w.; (have) all kinds of, every, complete
같이, 같다
dog; open
gangster, mobster

거북기 turtle; 거울 mirror;
주걱 spatula, rice paddle; 걱정 (하다) worry, anxiety;
건조기 (clothes) dryer; 소건 towel; 건물 building, structure, edifice
걷다 walk
걸레 rag, rag mop (대걸레 mop; 자루걸레 handle mop); Schlampe; 걸다 / 걸리다
검다, 검은색 black; 검은콩 black beans
겁 fear, fright, dread, cowardice, terror; timid (겁나다) (怯 qiè)
것 thing; -것댜 tag Q; I think/suppose
surface, face, exterior, outer, right side; unhulled grain
겨 grain/rice husks/hulls, chaff, bran, grit; 겨울 winter겨드랑이 armpit
frame; class; case (gram.) (格 gé
겪다 experience, undergo
견과 nut; 애견 pet (犬quǎn); 견인 to tow (car) (牵引 qiānyîn); 견 (絹) a sheet of silk (for painting or writing)
knot, tie, bind (結 jié); grain, texture; disposition, temper; decide 決 (결정~); 결혼~ marry
경마 horse racing; 안경 eyeglasses; (鏡jìng); scriptures, classics

고릴라 gorilla; 고양이 cat; 고 warehouse, storage (庫kù)
곡 valley (zh); 곡식 grain;
곤돌라 gondola; 곤봉 club, cudgel; 곤색 navy, dark blue
곧다 be straight (length), upright; 곧 soon
valley; goal (sports) 시골 countryside
곱창 fried intestines; 봅셈, 곱다 multiplication;
곱다 beautiful, pretty, lovely, nice; warm / kind(-hearted), good-natured; soft, smooth; numb (from cold)
place, spot, seat
ball; peacock (공작, 孔雀); zero
곶감 dried persimmon
fruit; past, pass, cross (過)
city wall (郭 guō); outer coffin (槨 guǒ);
tube, pipe; (public) building;
광어 flatfish, halibut; 광~ shine, brightness; wide, broad
괴물 monster; 괴 strange; 괴롭다 painful, distressing, hard; awkward
굉장~ wonderful, great, amazing, magnificent, excellent; 굉 (宏 hóng) great
교과서 textbook; 교 teach(ing), school; bridge

구름 cloud; mouth, hole (구멍); nine; 구슬 marble
soup, broth; 국자 ladle
military, soldier
굳다 hard, stiff, strong; tight; solemn
heel; 말발굽 horseshoe; 굽다 roast, grill, barbecue (ㅂ→Ø); 굽다 curve, bend, crooked (ㅂ↛Ø)
굿 굿 shamanistic ritual or exorcism
oyster; cave, tunnel (동굴)
굵다, 굵은, 굵기 thick (e.g., liquid); big, fat, deep, large, stout (ㄹ=Ø)
palace (宮);
volume, book, document, ticket (卷)
ear; 귀뚜라미 cricket
규정 (規定) rule, regulation, code; to prescribe, require; 규소 silicon; 규 regulation, scale, rule, pattern (規 guí)
germ, virus (菌 jūn), 균류 fungus

그내 swing; 그릇 bowl; dish, plate, container; 그림 painting, picture; 그리다 draw, paint;
drama; pole, extreme
root 根; muscle (筋 jīn)
글자 letter, character;
긁다 scratch, claw, scrape; scrape, gather up
sharp (e.g., curve); class, grade; urgent, fast; 급~ urgent, pressing; (急 jí) anxious, urgent, priority

기린 giraffe; 기 machine (기계)
tense, tight (緊jǐn); 긴장 (緊張) nervous, tense; long
seaweed laver
collar, lapel; 옷깃 collar; 깃발 flag
깊다 deep (e.g., water); bottomless, remote, isolated; profound; bad, serious



까치; 까마귀 crow; 까다 peel, husk, crack; 까다롭다 difficult, fussy 까맣다 black; complete (까만게)
잠깐 for a short time
깍두기 cubed radish kimchi
깎이 sharpener, peeler, e.g., 연필깎이, 손톱깎이; 깎다 peel, shave, cut, sharpen; discount
깔개 rug; 깔때기 funnel; 깔다 spread, stretch, lay out (by layering, in layers) (e.g., carpet; sitting); pave, cover; 깔끔~ neat, tidy
깜짝 startled, shock; 깜박 blink
아깝다 regrettable, pitiable; precious, dear, worthy 가깝다 near(by), close 깝- frivolous(ly), e.g., 깝신거리다 act thoughtlessly, frivolously
깡통 tin can
sesame; 깨끗~ clean; 깨다 wake up, awake; sober up; break, smash;
깽깽 moan, whimper (onom.)

꺼풀 skin, outer layer; 눈꺼풀 꺼내다 eyelid; 꺼내다 take / pull / bring out, remove; 꺼지다 be extinghuished, blow out
꺾임 break, bend, snap; 꺾다 break, snap off; fold; turn, bend (타)꺾쇠 clamp, cramp iron
껍데기 shell (e.g., mollusk, nut), skin, rind, crust, husk; 껍질 peel, rind, bark, skin, hull, shell
with all possible _; as far/much as possible, to the utmost, as hard as one can (e.g., 힘껏)
뚜껑 lid
DAT-HON.; -께 about, around

꼬막 cockle (shellfish); 꼬치 skewered meat 꼬다 twist, bend; 꼬리 tail꼬끼오 rooster sound
꼭지 tap, faucet;
exactly, precisely, just; firmly, tightly, fast; surely, by all means;
fodder; shape, form; personal appearance, countenance
꼼꼼~ meticulous, precise, exact; 꼼치 grassfish, snailfish
꼿 -
꼽다 to count (on fingers), mention
end, tail; 꽁초 end, butt (e.g. cigarette); 꽁치 mackerel pike
꽂이 stand, rack, shelf꽂다 stick in/thru s.t., insert
우스꽝스럽다 ridiculous, funny
tightly, fast, firmly; fully, close, compact (fill)
quite, pretty
꾀다 to tempt, allure, entice, seduce

꾸다 dream꾸미다 decorate; invent, fabricate
one occupied / engaged with, e.g., 사양꾼 hunter
꿇다 kneel (down)
꿰다 to thread, to pass/run thru

끄다 put out, extinguish, turn off부끄럽다 shy; ashamed, shameful, embarrassed 시끄럽다 noisy, loud
string, cord (e.g., shoelace)
끊다 turn off, cut off, sever; abstain from, stop, hang up
chisel; 끌다 drag, pull, haul; prolong; draw
끓다 boil (차), 끓이다 (타)
끔벅~ flicker, waver, twinkle; wink, blink; 끔짝~ terrible, awful 라끔 sometimes, occasionally
꼽등이 camel/cave cricket
끗수 points, score; 깨끗~ clean
end, finish; 끝나다

끼니 (small) meal; 끼다 insert, wrap, pull over/on, wear, put on; hold in arms;



나비 butterfly; 나방 moth; 나무 tree;
낙타 camel; (樂) fall(ing)
naan; 난초 orchid
blade; 날다 to fly
낡다 old (objects, cf. 늙-); shabby, old-fashioned, obsolete (ㄹ=Ø)
male; south; 남다 remain
납 lead (Pb); 사납다 wild, violent, fierce, aggressive; stormy
낫다 be better (than), superior; get better, get well, recover
sack, purse, pouch (囊 náng)
day, daytime; 낮다 low, flat; humble
face, countenance낯익다 familiar; 낯살다 unfamiliar
낱개 a piece, unit, item, each, individual
낳다 give birth, bear; produce, yield
inside, internal; 내다 give, put; hand in; pay; do s.t. thru, get s.t. done
냄비 pot, pan; 냄새 smell
사냥~ hunt; 사냥꾼 hunter

너구리 raccoon; 너트 nut (mech.)
넉넉~, 넉넉하게enough, sufficient
넌더리 (나다) disgusted, fed up, sick of
널다 stretch, spread out, hang (out) (e.g., clothes);
널(짠지) board, plank, shingle
넓다 be wide, broad, roomy, spacious
넘다 pass (over/thru) (spat./temp.), cross, go over/across; exceed, pass, go/be over; 넘치다 overflow, brim over; 넘기다 pass; pass / turn (over), hit over; turn (page); 넘어지다 fall (down), trip
넣다 put s.t. in, fill
네온 neon; 네 yes; four; 네거 film negative
넥타이 necktie
year, age
think, thought, memorial

노트북 laptop; 노 old, elderly; 노란색, 로랗다 yellow; 노래 song
녹색 green; 녹다 melt, dissolve, thaw; warm up
놀다 play, relax, hang out w.
fellow (neg.)
놋쇠 brass
농부 farmer;
높다 be high
놓다 lay, put, place; release, let go; keep

누룽지 crisped rice; 누나 older sister; 누르다 push, press; suppress; 누구? who?
눅다 fall, come, drop down; warm up; soft, limp; damp
eye; snow
눌리다 (>눌다) be pressed down, oppressed, squished; burned, scorched
눕다 lie down, recline
unhulled rice; paddy; 뉘앙스 nuance
뉴스; New York

느릅나무 elm tree; 느끼하다 greasy, oily; 느리다 slow, sluggish; 느끼다 feel, find, sense, experience; 느낌 impression, feeling; -느라고 due to, because of (V-stem+~)
늑대 wolf; 늑골 rib
(topic / contrast marker)
바늘 sewing needle, pin; 늘다 increase, improve; grow, gain, multiply; make progress; 를리다 lengthen, extend, stretch (e.g., a band); 늘 always, all the time
늙다 be/grow old, age (persons, cf. 낡-) (ㄹ: Ø)
늦다 be late; slow, tardy, delayed
able, ability; angle, edge

니켈 nickel; 니코틴 nicotine



다리 bridge; 다 many, much; 다치다 be hurt, wounded 다하다 run out; carry out, fulfill
닥치다 shut up!
닦다 clean, wipe, polish, wash
단호박 pumpkin; 단풍잎 maple leaf; 단 step, section; 단추 button
닫다 shut, close (door, shop); 닫히다 be closed
moon; 달팽이 snail; 달다 sweet, sugary; hoist, hang (up), install, wear, put on; weigh
닳다 wear out/off/down, be rubbed off/down
닮다 resemble, look like
담 wall, fence, Mauer; phlegm, sputum; congestion; gallbladder; courage, pluck, nerves; converse, conversation

담 || 담다 put, fill, hold; 담기다 be in, be put in (stative), has, contain

답답하다 stuffy; 답다 be like, worthy of; 답reply;
당나귀 donkey; sugar; hall; faction, party; 당근 carrot 당기다 pull s.t.
닿다 touch, reach; come into contact w.; get to; arrive at, reach
bamboo; belt; pole, stalk, stem, rod, cane;
great; opposite; facing; to treat대다 put, touch; (V+~) do s.t. extremely; 대하디 treat; concerning, about
residence, home (宅 zhái)

더위 heat; 더덕 (mountain herb & its root); 더럽다 dirty; 더미, 산더미 pile, stack, heap of s.t.; 더하다 add (+); 더 more; 더운 hot, warm;
goodness, kindness, mercy, virtue 德
덖다 parch, roast (beans, coffee); be stained w. dirt, soiled
던지다 throw, hurl, fling, cast, toss; vote; project-던 pluperfect, past habitual (?)
less, little, incompletely, insufficiently, half-덜다 subtract, deduct; decrease, lessen, ease, mitigate; 덜미 scrape/scruff of neck
extra, addition(al)
덥다 be warm, hot
덧붙이다 add; 덧대다 add, join, place, attach (one layer over another)
덩이 lump, mass, clod
ensnare, trap (e.g., mousetrap)
덮개 cover, bedspread, book cover; 덮다 to cover (i.e., wide, fully, extensively)
데다 be burned, burn oneself, scalded; bitter experience
덴마크 Denmark

도토리 acorn; 도마 cutting board; 도마뱀 lizard;
poison (毒 dú); reading; Germany; 독~ strong, pungent, potent; spiteful; firm, dogged
돋보기 reading glasses, magnifying glass; 돋다 come up, rise (sun); grow up, sprout (싹)
stone; collide; sudden; 돌다 turn around, rotate
돕다 help, assist; relieve
동아리 circle; club, society, group; ice (凍 dòng); winter; 동물 animal;
move; east; copper; same, together; move; 동영상 video; 동작 move, movement;
돛단배 sailboat
돼지 pig; 돼 > 되다
back, again, repeated;
되다 be done, finished, become; result in; come to; grow, thrive, prosper; consist of; able to do, will do; act as
뒨장 soybean paste

두부 tofu, soy; 두 head; two, couple; 두루미 Japanese crane (bird)
bank, levee
blunt; dull, stupid (鈍 dùn)
two; 둘째 second;
둥지 nest; 둥글다, 둥근 round, spherical
뒤(쪽) back, rear; succession; later 못뒤다 bad, mean
됫길 backstreet, byroad

드럼 drum; 드리다 offer, give, present;
가득 full; benefit, advantage, gain, interest, good, profit (得 dé); 가득~ crammed, full
든든~ reassured, reliable, confident; full -든(지) either...or, whether...or; any, -ever
듣다 hear
들깨 perilla; 들판 field, wild;
들다 enter; cost; become; carry, lift
light, lamp; the back; class, grade

디 D,; 디스크 disk; 디젤 diesel



따다 pick, pluck; open, unlock; win, get, gain; 따갑다 prickly, hot, stinging; 따르다 follow; pour (in); 따로 separately, independently; 따뜻~ warm
딱따구리 woodpecker; 딱지 scab; 딱정벌레 beetle; 딱딱~ hard (texture), firm, stiff; 딱 w. bang, snap; positively, flatly; 딱지 scab; stamp, sticker
daughter; 딸꾹/딸꾹질하다 hiccup
ground, land, eath
dead skin, dirt; time, moment; 때리다 beat, hit; 때로 sometimes, occasionally;
clang, ring, bell sound

떠나다 start out, leave, depart
떡; 어떡하다
어떤 which, what, how
떨림 shaking (body, etc.), vibration; 떨다 shake, quiver, tremble; remove, shake off (떨내다); cf. 떨어지다 떨아지다 fall, drop; fail; run out;
떫다 astringent, puckery, bitter, sour
떳떳~ honorable, blameless
어떻다, 어떻게 how, like what
떼다 take off, detach, pull off, remove; 떼 group, swarm, crowd, throng, pack, flock, herd

also, again, and, too, both...and
똑똑~ clever, bright, intelligent; 똑똑 (adv./onom.) knock; drip; 똑 just, exactly, right

뚜껑 lid; 메뚜기 locust, 귀뚜라미 cricket
with a (heavy) snap, thud; suddenly, unexpectedly뚝뚝 onom.: raindrops 뚝배기 earthenware bowl
뚫다 to bore, drill (hole), penetrate
뚱뚱이 fatso, 뚱뚱~;
엉뚱~ strange, odd, eccentric
뛰다 run, dash; jump, leap, skip, swing, beat뛰어나다 outstanding, good

뜨다 float; float (by) (in air/water); rise, come (up); knit; leave, move on; scoop up, ladle out 뜨다 open (one’s eyes)뜨겁다 hot, burning
floating, drifting
뜯다 tear off, pluck; bite, graze;
moxibustion (Oriental medicine)
meaning, intention, mind; 뜻~ mean, indicate, refer to;

belt, band, sash; zodiac sign 띠다 wear (belt)



라면 ramen; 리마 lama; 라디오 radio
락스bleach; fall, omit, scatter (낙, 落 luò); NP-락 말락 on the brink/verge of; NP-락 and, or (?) (correlative?)
egg; order, chaos (난, 亂 luàn)-(이)란 as for X; is called, (das) heißt; NP~ that is, that (which is) is named/called; generic topic NP; XP~? was heißt? (PP > -(이)라고 하는)
람바다 lambada
랍비 rabbi; 랍소디 rhapsody;
신랑 bridegroom; (이)랑as for, and, with, etc. + topic 자랑 boast, brag, show off
커다랗다 big, large, huge; 동그랗다 round; (-을) 동그랗게 around
come, coming오래다 long time
랭크되다, 랭킹 rank; 랭 cool; 무말랭이 dried sliced radish
전략 strategy; abbreviate(d), summary, plan, simplify
car, carriage, e.g., 차량 (輛 liàng); volume, quantity, amount, capacity, supply, to measure (量 liáng)涼 (liáng/liàng) cool; disappointed, discouraged; e.g., 황량~ bleak, desolate

러너 runner; 러닝 running race; 러닝머신 treadmill; 러시아 Russia -러 (purpose clause + motion verbs)
럭비 rugby
런던 London; 런치 luncheon; 이런/그런 such, like, that kind of; 뉴런 neuron
그럴듯~ plausible, specious; decent;
시럽 syrup; hunt, field, sports ( 獵 liè) -스럽다 seems, be like, suggest; -ish 더럽다 dirty
지렁이 earthworm; 우렁이 freshwater snail; 설렁탕 oxtail soup;
그렇다 (르래) so, such; true이렇다, 이렇게 like this, so저렇다 like that 누렇다 (golden/dirty) yellow; pale (sickly) yellow
레몬 lemon; 수레 wagon, cart, shopping cart, handcart, wheelbarrow
렌즈 lens; 렌즈콩 lentil; 렌치 wrench;
고려 Goryeo dynasty; -려 be about to +V; -려나 I wonder +S-려고 in order to (+action verbs)
달력 calendar (曆 lì ); strength, power (力); experience (歷 lì)
practice, train (연) 세련되다 refined, sophisticated
강렬~ strong, intense, mighty; 렬 (烈 liè) strong, fierce
honest, moderate (염)
어렵다 difficult, hard 두렵다 fearful, afraid, terrified; hunt, field, sports ( 獵 liè)
뚜렷하다 clear, distinct, plain, evident, definite, obvious, apparent차렷 attention(!)
대통령 president; 고령 old age; neck, collar (領 lǐng); lead, command (영); Spirit
rite, ceremony (禮lĭ) instance, case, example, usual (例lì)

로켓 rocket; 路 road; 로마 Rome; 로비 lobby; 로커locker;
green; minutes, record, register, diary (녹) (錄 lù)
roll; 롤빵 bread roll; 롤러 roller, squeegee
롭- 롭다 characterized by 해롭다 harmful, bad 외롭다 lonely
play with (농); room salon (sic)
depend on (e.g., 신뢰 faith) (賴lài)
material (자료, 재료), estimate (料 liào); finish, achieve, understand (了) (수료)
공룡 dinosaur

base (baseball); 루비 ruby; 지루하다 boring; bored; dull, tedious, tiresome 루주 rouge, lipstick; 루블 ruble
거룩 holy, divine, sacred;
stream, flow (流liú); kind, sort, style, type, manner, system; papers, documents
continent, land mass (陸)
훌륭~ excellent, great, magnificent; great, grand, lofty; honorable, admirable (隆 lóng); 흥륭~ prosperity, prosper, flourish

그르다, 그름 wrong, incorrect; hopeless; 다르다 different 흐르다 flow, run; 부르다 full푸르다 blue, azure, green 르네상스 Renaissance; 장르 genre
오른(쪽) right side
기름 oil
무릎 knee

리모진 limo bus; 리마 콩 lima beans; 리본 ribbon
린스 rinse (hair)
삼림 forest; 아이스크림 ice cream
림 stand, establish (立); 그립다 long for, miss



마늘 garlic; 마을 village, hamlet; 마루 (wooden) floor; 마치다 end, finis
막대사탕 lollipop, sucker; 막 end, last; desert; curtain; 막다 clog, block; stop, prevent; enclose,
(₩)10,000; full; only; bay, gulf
first born, eldest
horse; end; language, speech, word, talk; 말다 stop, skip, break off; roll (up)
맑다 clear, clean, pure; sunny
taste, flavor
net; 망치 hammer
맞다 be correct, agree, fit; be hit, struck, beaten; get acupuncture (침); greet, welcome, receive; face a certain time; ...맞아 over, during
맡다 smell, sniff at, sense; keep, take charge of, take on; be in charge; 맡기다 entrust, leave
매실 green plum; 매 sour plum; hawk; whip, rod, cane; sell, buy; 매미; 매다 tie, fasten, wear
산맥 mountain range; 동맥 artery; 맥 vein (of ore); pulse
bare, unprotected, nothing but; the very, the most, at the very front; 맨션 mansion;
맵다 spicy
blind; plain, bland
맺다 tie (up), knot; bear (fruit); conclude, finish, close

머리 head, hair;
eat, make, suffer; ink (中國, 인도)
먼지 dust; 먼저 first (of all); previously
멀다 be far; 멀리 far away, distant
멈추다 stop, halt
a show, relish, taste; 멋싰다, 멋지다
멍 bruise, contusion멍하다 blank, stupified멍멍 onom.

메뚜기 locust; 메뉴 menu; 메기 catfish; 메달 medal
멧돼지 wild boar
며칠 what day?
surface, face, side, aspect; noodle; cotton
destroy, exterminate
name, famous; bright, clear; command
some, several; how many / much / far

모기 mosquito; rice spout, seedling; mother; angle (kr); 모으다 gather, collect (타), 모이다 (자)
neck, throat; eye, item (目); wood, tree
몪다 tie, bind
몬순 monsoon
몰다 steer, drive, chase, pursue, run after; to corner; charge, accuse w. crime; 몰 lack, sink (沒); 몰라요 > 모르다 not know
nail, peg; callous, corn; pond, pool; 못~ cannot, not, incapable; poor; inferior 뭇지않다 not as X as, not inferior
grave, tomb
grave; mystery, wonder묘~ odd, strange

radish; 무당벌레 ladybug
bean / grain jelly (e.g., 도토리묵); silent; 목다 old, antiquated; stop, lodge at
문어 octopus; 문 door; 문손잡이 doorknob; 문 letter, writing; question
묻다 ask, question, inquire; smear, stain; bury, conceal, hide
water; 물다 bite, sting; hold s.t. in one’s mouth; pay, repay
묽다 watery; weak; thin
bunch, bundle; various
뭉치다 (form a) mass, lump, mass; unite, stand, get together
뮤지컬 musical

므네모시네 Mnemosyne; 므엉족 Muong tribe

미식축구 American football (a ball, or the sport); 미나리 water dropwort / parsely; 미각 (sense of) taste; 미 rice
믹서 mixer
people, tribe
믿 맏다 believe, trust; rely on
secret; 밀다 push
밉다 detestable, hateful, odious
and (also), both...and
bottom, below, lower, base, underneath; lower, subordinate



바나나 banana; 바퀴벌레 cockroach;
바퀴 wheel; 바구니 basket; 바탕 background; 바라다 wish, desire; 바르다 apply, put on
gourd; 박쥐 bat; 박다 hammer, drive (into), ram
half; opposite; 반지 ring
쓰레받기 dustpan; 받다 receive;
foot, step; depart, rise> 바르다 upright; right, correct; cover, plaster, spread, apply, put on (topically)
밝다 bright, light, brilliant, to dawn; 밝히다 reveal, disclose; light
밟다 step on
chestnut; night
밧줄 rope
방망이 bat, club, e.g., 약구방망이; 방 room; defend
(dry) field, farm
pear; ship; belly
white; 100; (양)배추 white cabbage
뱃> 배
뱉다 spit (at/out)

버섯 mushroom; 버팔로 buffalo; 버릇 habit; manners; 버리다 throw away;
벅차다 hard to manage, too much, beyond one’s power; full n
번개 lightning, thunderbolt; 번빵 bun; 번 number, repeat; change, shift, alternate; MW iterations (番 fān)
벌bee, wasp; 벌레 bug, worm; 벌다 make, earn (money); 벌리다 open, spread (by pulling apart or separating)
범인, 범죄자 criminal 표범 leopard; (범= tiger, tigress); 범선 sailboat; (帆船)
범하다 commit (error, mistake);
ordinary, common, mundane, temporal (평범~) (凡 fán); pan- (all), general; offense; pattern, master;
law, rule, method
벗다take off, remove, undress
벙커 bunker; 벙어리 mute, speech-impaired; 벙벙~ stunned, dumbfounded
벚꽃 cherry blossom; 벚나무 cherry tree
베다 rest, lay one’s head on; 베다 cut, slice, (e.g., finger), mow; (erg./passive/adversative)베개 pillow
뱅어 whitebait fish

rice plant; paddy
wall, partition; habit > 버릇
변하다 change, alter; 변 dung, feces; accident
star; another, other, particular (别)
볍씨 rice seed; 가볍다, 가볍게 light, simple, gentle, easy; frivolous(ly), careless; minor, mild
bottle, jar; disease, sic

보석 gem, jewel, precious stone (寶 bǎo); 보리 barley
복숭아 peach; duplicate, copy (复 fù); clothes; blessing, fortune, happiness
볶다, 볶음 stir -fry
root, origin, base, model, pattern, main (本); V-본적 있다 experiential perfective
봉투 envelope, paper packet, bag; 봉 peak
봐 > 보다
뵙다 see, meet (hon.)

부추 chives; 부엉이 horned owl (or short-eared / long-eared owl); 부채 folding fan; part (일부 some; 부분 piece)
skin (肤 fū); wealth, blessing, fortune, riches; father; part, section, department, division; unit; wife; vice-, attached to, supplement, addition; not 부르다 call, sing
drum (Korean traditional); north;
powder; 분필 chalk
fire, light불다 blow; swell up (w. water), soaked
붉다 red, crimson, scarlet (ㄹ=Ø)
(그림) 붓 paintbrush; 붓다 pour (in/into) (ㅅ→Ø); swell (up), become swollen
붕대 bandage; 붕어 carp; 부엉이 owl
붙다 (자), stick to, adhere; 붙이다 (타) stick, adhere; pass (exam); stay close to; stay; join w.;
뷔페 buffet

브로콜리 broccoli; 브레이크 brake
블라우스 blouse; 블로그 blog

rain; compare, ratio, proportion; fat; broom, brush; 비다 empty, vacant, unoccupied 비치다 shine, be reflected; 비추다 shine, reflect
empty; guest
빌리다 borrow, take a loan; 빌다 borrow; employ, use; pray, wish
빗 comb; (빗자루 broom )
debt, loan
light, color; ~나다shine, sparkle



빠지다 deflate, drain, fall out; lose weight; sink; be absorbed, drowned; fall out, be dropped, be absent
(빤하다 = 뻔하다)
빨다 suck (at/on); wash; 빨래; 빨리
빼다 pull out, subtract, remove, take out

뻐꾸기 cuckoo; 기뻐~ rejoice, happy
뻔하다 clear, plain, obvious
뻗다 spread, extend, stretch, reach out, (oneself, body; stative) (타/차)
가볍다 light; ; simple; careless
bang, pop

뽀뽀 kiss, peck (onom.)
뽑다 pull, draw, take out, extract (e.g., tooth, nail, tree); select, choose;
mulberry; 뽕짝 = 트고트 trot music
뾰족~ sharp, pointed; 뾰루지 skin rash, pimple

뿌리 root 뿌리다 spread, sprinkle; put on, apply
듬뿍 generously, liberally
antler, horn; projection, tip; 코뿔소 rhino

쁘띠 petit(e); 기쁘다 glad, happy; 바쁘다 busy

삐다 twist, sprain (injury)



사자 lion; 사발 bowl; 사탕 candy; 사 sand; scholar; teacher; four
cut, subtract; 삭도(차) cable car
mountain; calculate; umbrella
flesh, skin, meat; kill; 살구 apricot; 살다 be alive; live; reside; 살 age, years; (불) 사르다 burn, set on fire, make a fire
삶 life; 삶다 boil, simmer, cook
three; hemp, flax (plant, cloth)
shovel, spade, scoop
상어 shark; table, bench; image; 上 top, above, ascend, supreme, upper; 상상~ imagine
bird; new
be born, life, living, raw; student생각~ think

서랍 drawer; 서 book, writing, document; west; public office; 서다 stand; halt, stop
stone; seat
섞다 mix, mingle, blend, shuffle
선풍기 (electric) fan; 선지 blood soup; 선인장 cactus; 선 ship, boat; 선물 gift, present
설탕 sugar; 說 theory, explain, talk; establish (설명~); 설거지 dishes (to wash), dish-washing
island, isle
섭섭~ sorry, disappointed, regrettable; 섭씨 Celsius 무섭다 scary, frightening ; scared, afraid; 섭 take in, absorb, assimilate; act for; care for one’s health (攝 shè); to wade, be involved, concern, experience (涉shè)
halt! (mil.); 버섯 mushroom
fortress; voice; star, planet; saint, holy; surname; anger, wrath; success성공~ succeed
wash; tax; (힘) 세다 strong, powerful, vigorous, muscular; violent, sever, intense (e.g., forces)
세다 count, calculate
섹시~ hot, sexy
calculation, sum
셀러리 celery

stomach, (the) inside, one’s insides, one’s heart; speed, speedy; 속~ belong to
brush; to lead; 솔직~ honest, open
솟다 gush, spring, spurt out; break froth; rise, tower, soar; 솟대 acrobat’s pole; ritual / festive dragon head pole
pine; 송이 pine mushroom
clay / cast iron pot, caldron
쇄골 collarbone, clavicle (鎖骨 suǒ lock (up))
쇼핑 shopping; 쇼크, 쇼캉하다 shock

water; hand; receive; guard
숙주나물 mung bean sprouts; lodge; 기숙사 dorm
순두부찌개 tofu stew
숟가락 spoon
liquor, alcohol; tassel, tuft, fringe (e.g., 입술)skill, art, method, technique
솜다, 숨기다 hide; 숨 breath, 숨쉬다 breathe
pure, innocent
숭늉 = 누롱지 soup
thickness (hair); 숱하다 numerous, a lot
쉬다 relax, rest; take a day off; breathe; be hoarse; go bad, spoil 쉬 = 小便
쉰 fifty
쉽다 easy, simple

스웨터 sweater
study, practice; 습~ damp(ness), moist, wet, soggy 우습다 funny, humorous
슬라이드 slide, transparency
슬프다 sad, sorrowful; 슬퍼하다 be sad슬다 disappear, vanish; wither, wilt; rust
슴베 handle, end (knife, farm tool), tool tang
비슷다 similar, like, alike
boarding; victory, win

시금치 spinach time; 시계 clock; 시각 (sense of) sight 시다 sour;
food, eat; style, ceremony; plant; know, recognize
신장 kidney; 신용타드 credit card; 신 god(神); 신다 put on, wear (footwear)
싣다 load (ㄷ→ㄹ)
room, classroom (강의실); 실 thread; fruit; 실수 failure, mistake;
싫다 hateful; hate, dislike
heart, mind; 심하다 bad, serious, deep; 심다 to plant
싱크 sink; 싱싱~ fresh; 싱겁다 bland



싸다 cheap; wrap (up), pack; 싸우다 fight, argue
shoot, spout; quite, completely
lettuce wrap
pair, twins, couple
쌓다 pile, stack, heap (up), accumulate; 쌓이다 be stacked, pile up

썩다 rot, decay, decompose, go bad; be corrupt
썰다 slice, , chop, cut (solid objects, e.g., meat, vegetables, food)썰렁~ chilly; empty, deserted; corny
눈썹 eyebrow
글쎄 well, … (DM)

쏘다 shoot, fire (at); sting
쏟다 spill, pour; concentrate (on), devote o.s. to s.t.; pour out, vent; 아지다 pour (자)
쏠다 lean toward, incline
쐐기 wedge

쑤시다pick, poke; ache, throb, be sore

쓰다 use, employ, spend; hire; spend; bitter; write; put on, wear쓰레기 trash
쓸다 sweep; 쓸모 use, usefulness; 쓸개 gallbladder 쓸쓸~lonely, solitary
씌우다 spread, cover, be spread (not covering widely or extensively, cf. 덮다), wear, put on (clothing articles)

seed, pit
날씬하다 slim, slender
씩- 씩 each, separately, apiece; 씩씩~ vigorous, energetic
씹다 chew, bite; 씹 coīre, pudenda
씻다 wash, rinse, cleanse

12 ㅇ (1: 아, 어)


아몬드 almond; 아 child; 아기 baby, infant;
악어 crocodile; 악 evil, bad; music
안내 announcement; 안다 hold, hug, embrace
앉다 sit, be seated
않다 not, do not
(fish) egg, round object; 알다 know
앓다 be sick, fall ill, suffer (from ~을)
암탉 hen; 암 cancer; rock; female (animal); dark, secret;
pressure; push, press
center (央 yāng); onom. (e.g., baby crying)
front, ahead

애벌래 caterpillar
amount ($), sum; liquid
앵무새 parrot

wilderness, field; at night; 야~ racy, sexual
medicine; promise; weak
얄밉다 detestable, hateful; naughty
얇다 thin, fine; flimsy;
얌전~ well behaved, quiet, gentle, meek, clean, modest, obedient
sheep; ocean, Western; bring up, care, nourish; both; quantity, amount
얕다 shallow (depth)

얘기 > 이야기

어치 jay (bird); 어항 fish bowl (魚缸); 어 fish; word, term, language어둡다 dark, gloomy어리다 young, little
jade; 108; tough; press, suppress
words, talk; 언니 older sister; 언덕 hill; 언제 when, whenever
얹다 lay, place (s.t.) on (s.t.), load (s.t.) with (s.t.)
얻다 borrow; get, gain, win, take, acquire, achieve
얼음 ice (얼다 freeze); 일굴 face, features, countenance, look; 얼얼~ hot, burning, on fire (e.g., tongue); 얼룩말 zebra; 얼룩 stain, smear, spot
얽다 pitted; weave, tie up
엄지 thumb; 엄마 mommy
업j ob, business, industry, calling, vocation, occupation, trade, profession
cross, intersect, pass, alternate
엉덩이 buttocks, hip
엊그제 a couple of days ago
엎다 turn over / down, lay upside down

엔진 engine; yen

여우 fox; female, woman; travel; 여름 summer; 여치 long-horned grasshopper, katydid;
station; translate; opposite, reverse
연 kite (鳶); 연 lotus (蓮); 연필 pencil; 연어 salmon; 연 research; perform; year
열무 young/slender radish; line, row, file, column, queue (렬); heat, temperature; ten
엶다 thin; light, pale; light color
salt; inflammation; dye
leaf; 엽기 bizarre
taffy, wheat gluten
영양 antelope; 수영 swim; England; zero; glory; shadow; neck, collar; reflect, cinema, movie; order, command
옅다 light, pale, faint

13 ㅇ (2: 어 우)


예쁘다 pretty; art; yes;

old, ancient, old times; instance, example (例 lì); pre-, fore-, ease, comfort, happy (豫yù)예민~ sensitive, keen, sharp; sharpness, acumen, acuteness; > (锐 ruì) sharp, vigor;

old, ancient; 옛날 old days, formerly

오렌지 orange; 오리 duck; 오 five;
jade, gemstone 玉; prison, jail
warm, temperature (溫 wēn); all, whole
올챙이 tadpole; 올빼미 tawney owl; 올가미 noose, lasso, snare; strand, ply; 올리다 raise, lift up, increase; offer; this year (올해)
옭다 tie (up), fasten, secure
옮기다 (ㄹ=Ø) move, shift, transfer; transmit (disease); translate, spread; 옮다 be infected, catch;
옳다 right, righteous, just, truthful, correct, exact, accurate, proper, correct
scabies, mange, itch
옷 clothes; 옷가방 suitcase
옹이 knot (wood)

기와 roof tile
완두콩 pea; 완 complete (완전~)
왈츠 waltz; 왈 said, so-called
king; 왕관 crown

why, how
onom.: urp, ugh; 왝왝~ retch

outside, foreignonly, isolated, lonely (외롭다) 외치다 shout, yell
left side

요가 yoga; 요 mattress (kr. floor mattress); 요요 yo-yo;
要 essential, demand; cook;
bath, bathe; abuse, abusive language, curse, shame, insult
dragon; use

우산 umbrella; beef (牛); right side; friend;
운동 exercise; transport, drive, move; luck, fate (運 yùn);

울 || 울다 cry, weep울타리 fence 우울~ gloomy, depressed

움직이다 move, budge, change position; work, operate
웃다 laugh, smile; 웃기다 make laugh, be funny
virile, male (雄xióng)

워어 exclam.
원숭이 monkey; 원 circle, round; desire, wish; origin; garden; court, institution; desire
moon, month, Monday

웨딩 wedding
a certain, some, what(ever)웬만~ tolerable, fairly good; tolerate
web (Internet)

위스키 whiskey; 위 stomach; 위시본 wishbone
윗- upper-
wing; onom: buzz, hum; 윙크 wink

milk; Europe; exist, existence (有); entice, tempt (誘 yòu); 유리 glass; 유명~ famous
meat, flesh; six; land, ground (陸)
shine, gloss, luster (潤 rùn); wheel; rotate, take turns (輪 lún)
율동 rhythm; rate, ratio, freq. (率 lǜ); a law, regulation (률) (律 lǜ)

melt, blend, harmonious (融 róng); 융합 fusion, fuse (融合)
(윷놀다) yut (game)

14 ㅇ (3: 으, 이)


으로; 으르다 threaten, intimidate, scare
그윽~ deep, delicate; 그윽이 in secret, private, inwardly, in o’s heart; subtle; 윽 yuck
silver, money
sound, note, tone; drink; yin; φαλλος
을지로; 가을 fall, autumn
읊다 chant/sing/write a poem
town, village (邑 yì)
yes, mmm; response, e.g. 응급 emergency; congeal, solidify; concentrate attention, stare (凝 níng);

의자 chair, stool; 의사 doctor; 의- medicine; 의하다, 의해, 의한 be due to; be based on; according to, thanks to; -에 의해 by (passive agent) 의미~ mean, signify, stand for, indicate

이구아나 iguana; 이발 barber; 이기다 win, beat, overcome; 이르다 early
익다 be ripe, mature, done (fruit, grains, boiled/cooked items); skilled, experienced, familiar; used to; to master, become proficient, familiar with;

인 || person; benevolence, virtue, humanity; seal, stamp; 인사~ greet

sun, day; work, job, matter; one, first
읽다 read, recite; guess, see, figure
잃다 lose, miss, be deprived of
임신 (姙娠: rèn, conceive, be pregnant + shēn, pregnant)assign, appoint, take a post; responsibility; allow (任 rèn);
mouth, lips; enter 入; stand 立; 입다 put on, wear; suffer, sustain;
잇다 join, link, connect; continue, keep; inherit, succeed (ㅅ→Ø); → -이어 after; 잇 (slip-)cover;
잉어 carp
잊다 forget; put out of one’s mind
잎사위 leaf



ruler; letter, character; 자다 sleep
작가 writer, author; 작약 peony (芍藥); 작성 draft, prepare, draw up, prepare (作成); make, do 作; 작다 small, short, little;
cup; 잔디 grass, lawn
잖- 잖아요 (e.g., 있잖아요) you know, don’t you know; > -지 않-
well; 자르다 cut off/out/away, sever, amputate, chop (up); = cutting long, thin objects잘다 small, little, fine
잡다 grasp, grab, seize, catch, hold; 잡지 magazine; 잡mixed, various, misc., to mix (雜 zá): 잡채
장어 eel; 장화 galoshes, rainboots; 장 intestine; 장아찌 pickled vegetables
잦다 be frequent
재활용 recycling, recycle; 재 ash (담뱃재, 화산재); talent, skill; again, re-, exist (在)
argue, debate, strive, vie (爭zhēng); 쟁기 plow (farming); gong; zither

저녁 evening, dinner; 저울 balance scales, (pair of) scales; 저금통 coin bank, money box, piggy bank (돼지 저금통); 저리다 sore, pain, numb, ache, asleep; 저쪽 that side, over there; 저자 writer, author (著 zhe); low; bottom; we, our, us; they, their, them
적신호 red light, warning/danger signal (敵 red); 적다 write down, note (down), enter; 적다 few, small
Korean pancake; 전등 electric lamp (電燈); expert (專 zhuān); fight, battle ( 戰zhān)
festival, season (節); clause, paragraph, verse (節); cut, slice (切 qiē); (deep) bow; (Buddhist) temple
젊다 young, youthful
point, spot; store
접시 saucer, plate, dish; 접다 fold, furl; receive, welcome, answer, join (接 jiē);
젓가각 chopstick
well (井); stop; correct; order (e.g., 정리 arrange); 정~ decide 定; feeling, affection; really, truly; cold chisel
breast, bosom, breast milk, (젖통) udder
제비 a swallow (bird);
제하다 divide, exclude, subtract, deduce; 제 make, manufacture, system (製 zhì); eliminate, get rid of (除chú); carry, propose, raise, offer, provide, (提tí); junior (f.); subject; aid, help, relief (濟 jì); 제트 a jet; 제발;

조개 clam; 조깅 jogging; make, build (造 zào); assist; clause 調 (diào: melody, accent, tone), e.g., 강조 emphasis, stress, highlight
존귀 nobility; 존John
졸다 doze off; 졸리다 sleepy;
좁다 narrow, small
마늘종 garlic shoots/stem; 종 seed; kind; 종이 paper
vulg., =자지 φαλλος
left; seat
crime, sin, guilt

주먹 fist; 주머니 pocket; 주방 dining room
rice porridge; 죽순 bamboo shoots;
prepare (準 zhǔn); 준 accurate, standard; definitely, certainly; about-to-be, quasi; given;
string, line, queue;

줄기 stem, stalk (plant), cane; stream, tributary, beam, ray 줄다 decrease, diminish; 줄리다 reduce

middle; weight
mouse, rat; 다람쥐 squirrel; 쥐다 grasp, grab, hold, take hold of, grip

즈음 about the time (when)
promptly, quick (即jí); 즉시, 즉각 immediately; 즉 namely, that is, i.e.; just, exactly;
즐기다 enjoy, pleasure, have fun; comb, comb teeth, row (櫛 zhì)
testify, evidence 증가다 be exhausted, tired

지네 centipede; 지팡이 (walking) stick, cane;
지 finger; branch; earth; paper; 지다 become; lose, be defeated; 지르다 shout, yell 지우다 delete, remove, erase
직박구리 bulbul (bird); 직원 clerk
진달래 azalea; 진 advance; e.g., 진화 evolution (bio.); 진하다 strong (flavor), dark, deep, thick, heavy;
질문 question; 질 quality, nature, disposition; pudenda; 질소 nitrogen
luggage, baggage, load, cargo, freight; burden, nuisance
house; 집다 gather, collect; grasp, pick up
짓다 cook; make, build; make up, fabricate; form; write, compose; to name;
punish, reprimand, warn (懲 chéng); characteristic, symptom, phenomenon; request, impose (徵 zhēng)
짙다 deep, dark, thick, heavy, dense, strong (e.g., texture, odor, expression)



짜장면; 짜증 annoyance, irritation; 짜다 weave, knit, put zs.; squeeze, wring out, press; 짜다 salty; stingy, cheap;
salty, e.g., 짠물 saltwater
짝수 even number; pair; mate, spouse; 뽕짝 trot music, 트로트; 반짝거리다 twinkle
짧다 short; lacking, brief, insufficient, poor; abbreviated (length, duration)
짱(아)! great!; 베짱이 katydid
-째 ordinal numerals, xth 째다 cut into, lance, incise; 째다 tight, too small, pinch; insufficient, in need of
쨍쨍 sound symbolism: bright sun
쨍그랑 clink (onom., e.g., glass)

쩌쩌 tsk, tsk (?); 쩌렁쩌렁하다 loud, resonating, blaring, shrill
쩝쩝 onom.: smacking lips
쩡쩡 snap, crackling
쩨쩨하다 small-minded, petty, narrow-minded, cheap, stingy
쪄> 찌다 fatten

쪼다 peck (at), chisel
쪽 side; 쪽지 note, message, slip of paper
마늘쫑 garlic stems
쫓다 pursue, chase, run after, trail, track,drive sb/st out/away
쬐다 shine on/over, warm oneself, bask

쭈꾸미 webfoot octopus, short arm octopus; 쭈그리다 crouch, squat (down)
straight, directly; 철쭉 (wild) azalea

about, around, approx. (numerals)

찌래 stew; 찌다 gain weight, grow, fatten 찌다 be hot, to steam; 찌개찌르다 pierce, stab, prick, prod, poke; nudge; stick (hand into pocket)
찍다 print, stamp, imprint; cut down; chop, hack; thrust, pierce, spear; take photo
찐빵 steamed bun
steamed dish
찔 > 찌르다
찢다 tear, rip, split



car; tea; difference, disparity 차다 cold, chilly
착하다 good-natured, nice, good착잡~ mixed, uneasy, complicated
mistake(n), confused
food, dishes (반찬); praise찬란~ brilliant, splendid; radiant, resplendent
하찮다 trivial, trifling, petty, unimportant
sticky; observe (察 chá)
참새 sparrow; 참나무 oak; 참외; 참 participate, attend; 참 really, truly, indeed 참다 be patient, endure, bear, restrain o.s.
찻잔 teacup
window; sing
찾다 search, find

채 || vegetable; select, pick, collect, choose, gather (採 cǎi); 채 racket, stick, club; 파리채 flyswatter채우다 fill; 채다 snatch away, run away w.

book; plan
챙기다 take, pack; take care of (s.o.) visor, brim (hat); 챙기다 pack (up), take care of/for, look after (s.t./s.o.)

처방 prescription, prescribe (處方); 처가 wife's parents, in-laws (妻家); 처 place, office; 처칠 Churchill; 처가 wife’s family’s home
spine (척추), back, ridge; closely, tightly; pretend
thousand; heaven, sky; cloth; 1000; 천동 thunder; 천장 ceiling
temple; iron, steel; wisdom, judgment; season; remove; 철쭉 (wild) azalea
첨성대 (historical observatory in Gyeongju); add, increase (添 tiān"); 첨도 (尖度) kurtosis
the first, new; 첫자 first bus/train
청바지 blue jeans; 청소 clearning; 계청; 청동 bronze; 청어 herring; 청 request; listen (聽tīng); membrane, film; govt. office; clean;
체리 cherry; 체 strainer, sieve, sifter; body; “face” 체면 體面
첼로 cello
쳐다보다 gaze, stare, look in direction of;
> 치다 hit; consider, count; set up; put in; remove

촛 || 촛불 candlelight, candle flame
vinegar; grass (草); 초록(색) (草綠); second; candle; 초콜릿 chocolate
촉각 (sense of) touch
gun (銃chòng); all, general
gather, little pit; filming, e.g., 촬영
most, ultra; hurry, press, urge, hasten, expedite (催 cuī) 취고 highest

고추 chili pepper; 추어 mudfish;
추다 dance; autumn; ugly; 추석 Chuseok; 추가 addition, addendum;
congratulate, celebrate
springtime (春)
insect; full, enough (곤충)
취나물 (ligularia?); 취소~ cancel, postpone; 취 ~ intoxicated, drunk;

티셔츠 T-shirt
side; to lean; survey, measure (測 cè)
story, floor; layer, class, stratum

치타 cheetah; 치자 gardenia seeds; 치다 hit, attack; 치마 skirt; 치 tooth;
rule, law, grade, oblique (則 zé)
친~ close (to); 친구 friend
seven; 칠판 blackboard
saliva; acupuncture needle (침 맞다); 침팬지 chimpanzee

18 Cf. ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅉ

Three-way comparison of key syllables.

자몽 grapefruit 차 car; tea 짜다 salty; squeeze, wring out, press; 짜장면; 짜증 annoyance, irritation
작가 writer; 작성하다 to draft; 작약 peony; 작다 small 착 good 짝수 even number (짝 = pair, mate)
잔 cup 찬 food (반찬); praise 짠물 saltwater
잠 sleep; 잠그다 to lock 참새 sparrow 짬뽕 jjambong soup
장어 eel; soy sauce 간장 창문 window; sing 짱 best, super, very
재 ash (담뱃재, 화산재); 재활용 recycling 채 vegetable; 파리채 flyswatter 째다 cut, lance, incise
저녁 dinner 처방 prescription; 처가 wife's parents, in-laws (妻家) -
전 pancake 천 thousand, ₩1000; sky, heaven; -
정 a well; 정자 pavilion; 청바지 blue jeans -
제비 a swallow (bird); 체리 cherry; 체 strainer -
조개 clam 초 candle; vinegar; grass; 초록색 green, verdant -
종 (종소리) bell 총 gun, e.g., 물총 마늘쫑 garlic stems / shoots
존귀 nobility; 존 John; zone; 존경 respect, admiration 촌 village -
죄 crime, guilt, sin 최 most -
주먹 fist 추: 고추; 추다 dance; 추석 쭈꾸미 small octopus
쥐 mouse, rat 취나물 ligularia; 취~ drunk -
지네 centipede 치타 cheetah 찌개 stew



카누 canoe; 카레 curry
room, chamber, partition, train car
캄캄하다 very dark, pitch-black; 캄보디아 Cambodia
캐나다 Canada캐다 dig into/up, unearth; probe, pry, inquire (pej.)
캥거루 kangaroo

커피 coffee; 커닝 cheating; > 크다; 커브 (road) curve) 시커멓다 jet black
cup; 컵케이크 cupcake
(hair)cut; illustration, artwork; -컷animal gender
켜다 switch, turn on

nose; 코끼리 elephant
콘센트 power outlet; 콘도르 condor, vulture
prick, poke, sting (콕+찌르다, 쏘다, 쪼다)
-ish (esp. flavor)
코-, e.g., 콧구멍 a nostril
soybean; 콩나물 bean sprouts
roughly, violently, strongly
bang, thump
pleasant, refreshing (快), e.g., 상쾌~ fresh, refreshing

쿠키 cookie
퀴즈 quiz

크레용 crayon; 크레파스 (pastel) crayon; 크다 large, grow; 크기 size, volume

key; rudder, helm, steering; (one’s) height 키우다 raise, rear, bread (동물, 식물, 人)



타조 ostrich
탁자 table;
탄 coal, briqueete; 탄소 carbon; bullet, spring; coal; be born
escape, take off (脫 tuō)
수탉 rooster, 암탉 hen
search, spy (探 tàn)
탓 reason, fault, blame; 은/는 탓에 due to (adversative)
soup, hot water
태블릿 tablet (mobile device); 태몽 pregnancy dream; 태 great(est), large; 태우다 give a ride; burn
taxi (택시); 택~ choose, select, pick (out), option, alternative (擇 zé); residence (宅 zhái), 택배
태-, e.g., 탯줄 umbilical cord

site, place (e.g., 빵굼티); (...할) 터이다 intention, intend, expect; 터지다 explode; break out
chin; 턱수염 beard
wool, fur, body hair; 깃털 feather; 털다 dust, brush (off/down) (e.g., furniture); empty; rob, steal, burglarize
텃밭 family / veg. garden
테니스 tennis
텐트 tent; 텐데(요) should (conjecture, expectation)

토마토 tomato; 토끼 rabbit; 토 soil, land; discuss; 토하다 vomit
can, box, tub, tube; 통~ go thru, circulate, communicate, conduct (通); -통해 via, thru; 통 pain, intense; whole, bulk
retreat, leave (退 tuì)

외투 overcoat; 투표 ballot, vote; 사
fight, struggle, condemn, contend, put together (鬥, 鬪, 斗 dòu); throw, send, invest (投 tóu); cover, wrap; penetrate, thru, appear (透 tòu) →
투명~ opaque; uncertain, unclear, ambiguous
튀다 spatter, splash, splatter; bounce; 튀기다 fry, pop; 튀김

트림하다 burp, belch; 트루트 trot music 트다 bud, sprout, germinate; be/get chapped; dawn; open, meet (kennen­-lernen)
튼튼하다 strong, sturdy
chapped, e.g., 튼손
틀다 twist, turn; 틀리다 be mistaken, wrong, incorrect, error; 틀림 mistake, error, fault, discrepancy틀림없다 sure, certainframe, pattern, mold; shape, outline
a crack, gap, break, crevice; (spare) time; chance, opportunity

티셔츠 T-shirt; particle, (speck of) dust, dirt; flaw, defect



green onion; 파리 fly; 파란 blue/greento break; a wave; branch 파다 dig, excavate, burrow; carve
판다 panda; 판 board, plank (판자); printing; sell; judge; (k) place, situation
arm; eight; 팔다 sell
(dry farm) field; 豆沙
실패 spool (of thread); 패션 fashion, style, look; 패다 break (wood) to pieces, chop, split, beat; be dug or hollowed out 패하다 lose, be defeated
팩스 fax
팽이 top (spinning toy);

퍼센트 percent; 퍼지다 spread out, widen, broaden, propagate, prevail, multiply (abstract, non-tangible things, e.g., rumor, smell)
펭귄 penguin
펴다 unfold, spread, lay out, open, straighten, press, smooth (out) (e.g., paper, wrinkles), stretch (out), extend
편지 letter; slice, piece, mail (片); side; means; 편~ convenient, comfortable, relaxed;
펼치다 open, unfold, stretch out, spread (e.g., wings) 펼쳐지다 spread, be held, lie open
flat, even; peaceful, ordinary; critique, assess(ment), evaluation, criticism
lung; to close, closed; abolish(ed);

포크 fork; 포도 grape
폭포 waterfall; 폭 explode
ticket; chart; surface; manifest; 표현~ express, show

푸다 scoop, ladle, spoon (out/up)
푹발~ explode, busrt; 푹 sinking deeply, stuck; thorough(ly), hard, thru, completely, entirely, fast, soundly, deep(ly), sharply
grass; paste, starch, glue 풀다 untie, undo, untangle, unfasten, unpack; unbutton, open, unwrap; relax, loosen, unwind; solve; resolve; release, lift, remove; send out; (코를) blow one’s nose
풋- unripe, green (e.g., 풋고추)
goods, article; grade
wind; scenery; customs;

(계란) 프라이 fried (e.g., egg); 아프다 sick, painful; 플랑스 France

blood; skin; avoid, escape; 피자 pizza; 피다 bloom, blossom; spread (by flattening), straighten, flatten; open (book)
necessary; certainly, inevitably; pen, writing (笔, 筆)



하마 hippopotamus; 하트 heart shape; 하키스틱 hockey stick; 下; 河 river (hé); 하늘 sky
학 crane (bird) (鶴); 學
한자 Chinese character; 韓; 漢; one, same
cut, divide (割 gē)
핥다 lick
small box, case (割 hé)
unite, join, together; union
핫도그 hotdog, corndog
port, harbor
sun, sunlight; year; harm, damage, injury (害); sea, ocean
nucleus, pit, stone; (核 hé)
행구다 rinse; 행 go, act, way; row, series (行 háng)fortune; to face; province, hometown
fragrance, fragrant; 향~, 향해 face, facing, bound for

허리띠 belt; 허리 waist, lower back
constitution; to offer; (k) used, old; 헌금 offering, collection (church)
시험 examine, test; 험하다 rough, tough, rugged, hard, dangerous, perilous; sly, wily, underhanded; foul-mouthed
헐다 (clothes) wear out; demolish, tear down; 헐렁하다 loose, loose-fitting, baggy
헛개 (tea of) oriental raisin tree (hovenia dulcis)
헤게모니 hegemony; 헤지펀드 hedge fund; 헤매다 wander, roam
헷갈리다 be confused
헹구다 wash, rinse
tongue (舌 shé?)
현금 cash;
harmony, union
threaten; assist, jointly
shape, form; model, type; 兄 elder brother
혜성 comet

호두 walnut; 호랑이 tiger; number; good; call, exhale; 혹lump, bump; severe; confuse (惑 huò); 가혹~ severe, harsh
marriage; mix, confused; 혼자
홀수 odd number; 홀 hall; 홀로 single, alone
홍차 black tea
화약 gunpowder; 화 fire, anger; flower; picture, drawing; talk, story; harmony, peace; change; -(iz)ation
check, confirm; certain; correct, real, true, authentic (確 què); enlarge확인 confirm; 확고~ firm(ness), determination, solid, unwavering
exchange; return; suffer (from), contract (illness) (患huàn)환대 hospitality, warm, cordial 환하다 light, bright (e.g., daytime), radiant; clear, open

활 || live, lively, alive; 활짝 wide (open), in full bloom/blossom

emperor; huge; desolate; situation; sulfur; yellow (黃), e.g., 황사
perch > 횃대
suddenly, quickly, vigorously, w/ a jerk
meeting, gather; return; 회색 gray
계획plan, schedule, program (劃 huà: transfer, plan, assign; character stroke)
횡 cross, traverse, crossing 횡령 embezzle(ment), misappropriation

(> 橫 héng/hèng, sideways, horizontal, flagrant; unexpected, perverse)

발효 fermentation; 효 effect, efficacy, imitate (效 xiào); filial piety

후추 black pepper; 후각 (sense of) smell
teach, admonish
훔치다 steal, pilfer
코를 훌쩍이다/거리다 sniff, sniffle; 훌렁하다(/거리다) loose (clothing)
훑다 strip off, scrub (out), remove
어휘vocabulary, lexicon (彙 huì ‘gather, converge, transfer); wield, direct
evil, unlucky, terrible, fearful (兇 xiōng); (kr) scar, flaw

흐리다 cloudy, blurry; 흐르아 flow, run; pass, go by, elapse
흔들다, 흔들리다 shake, wave, rock, sway, tremble; 마흔 forty
black, dark 黑
흘리다 drop, shed (object, tears, etc.); 흘기다 look askance, give a sidelong glance / scowl
soil, earth, dirt, ground, mud, clay (ㄹ=Ø)
inhalation (吸 xī), 흡기
흥분~ overly excited;
fun, prosper, popular; permit; (興 xīng); 흥미하다 have interest in; 흥미롭다 interesting, exciting, attractive, amusing
흩다 scatter (about), strew, disperse; 흩어지다 scatter, be scattered, disperse, litter(ed)
rare, scarce; pleasure; 희다 white, fair gray
흰색 white

히터 heater; 히브리 Hebrew
힌두 Hindu
investigate, restrain, scold (詰 jié)
strength (physical), energy