Logical connectors list

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Logical relationship Coord. conj. Subord. conj. Adverbial and phrasal transitions Prep.
time & sequence and, or as, by the time*, as soon as, as long as, before, since, after, until, when, whenever, while after that/this, afterward, afterwards*, and so forth*, at last, at length, at that time, at the same time (as / that), beforehand, concurrently, currently, earlier, eventually, finally, formerly, from now on, immediately, in addition, in the future, in the meantime, in the meantime*, in the past, last, last but not least*, later, later on, meanwhile, moreover, next, now, presently, previously, recently, shortly, simultaneously, soon, soon afterwards*, still, subsequently, subsequently, then, thereafter, this instant, today, tomorrow, yet before, since, after, until, during
addition and, as, also,



not only... but also, neither...nor

that, who, which, whose, why, what, whatever, whoever, how much/ many, also, as a matter of fact, besides, by the way*, equally important, finally, first, first of all*, fourth...), further, furthermore, in addition, incidentally, in the first place, last, last of all, likewise, moreover, next, second (second of all*, still, still/yet another, third, too, yet plus, besides, in addition to

emphasis, restatement

(the) aforementioned, above all, as I said earlier*, as a matter of fact, chiefly, especially, i.e., in essence, in other words, in other words*, namely, once again, on the whole*, particularly, primarily, singularly, still, that is, that is to say*, to put it differently*, to repeat*, to restate*, with attention to,
exception other than except for the fact that, aside from, barring, excluding, besides, except, excepting, except for, exclusive of, outside of, save, with the exception of
example as, such as, like an instance of this...*, as an illustration*, by way of an example*, chiefly, e.g., especially*, first of all*, for example, for instance, for one thing*, including, in particular, more specifically, namely, specifically, such as, that is, this can be seen in*, thus, to demonstrate, to enumerate, to illustrate*, as, like


and, for because, since, so that, in order that, in order to, so as to all things considered, because of this, for this purpose, for this reason

to this end, this/that being the case, to do so, to do this*, to this end, with this in mind, with this object(ive), with this purpose in mind,

because of, due to, in light of (this), given (X)
result, cause and effect so, and, thus so that, such (a) [noun] that, if...then, therefore, it follows that, because, since accordingly, apparently, as a consequence, as a result, consequently, due to this, for this reason, hence, it is apparent (that), thereby, therefore, thereupon, thus, as a consequence of, in light of (this)
manner, similarity as as, as if, as though, how, however [= in whichever way that X] likewise, so, accordingly, comparatively, coupled with, correspondingly, identically, likewise, similar, similarly, together with based on, depending on, according to
condition in case if, as long as, unless [=except if], in case (that), provided that, supposing (that), whether, whether or not* this/that being the case, it may be (the case) in (the) case of,
concession but, yet it may be (the case) that, although, though, however, granted that of course, naturally, it may be the case that, granted, it is true that, certainly, and yet, even so, even though, nevertheless, otherwise, though, notwithstanding
contrast but, yet, or, nor although, though, even though, while, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that, however however, one the one hand...on the other hand, nevertheless, on the contrary, to the contrary, however, still, in contrast, conversely, at the same time, regardless, nevertheless, in contrast, after all, and yet, conversely, instead, rather, still, otherwise, for all that*, though this may be (so / the case)*, alternatively, at the same time* as opposed to, in contrast to, instead of, in spite of, despite, rather than, regardless (of), in opposition to
compar-ison just as, just as...so to, or likewise, similarly, also, again, in the same way/ manner, in comparison, relatively speaking, by the same token*, in like manner, in like fashion


above all, all things considered, as (I have*) demonstrated/ shown, as a result, as has been demonstrated/ shown, as the data/ facts show, finally, in any event*, in brief, in brief*, in conclusion, in short, in short*, in summary, in the final analysis, in the long run*, last of all*, on the whole*, on the whole*, therefore, thus, to conclude, to sum, to summarize, to sum up*, without a doubt, with this in mind*,
place, direction next to, above, behind, beyond, near, across from, to the right/ left, here, there, in between, opposite (to), nearby, at this/that point, surrounding, adjacent to, in the background / foreground, in the forefront, in the distance

*Indicates more colloquial, informal, or non-academic expressions. Comma & punctuation guides: http://owl.english.purdue.edu.

1 See also

See also

1.1 Pedagogical handouts

The following are PDFs for teachers and students

  1. Connectives chart: Some common transitionals
  2. A landscape version of the above chart
  3. A handout version of the above chart
  4. Intro to transitionals
  5. Coherence devices for logical flow
  6. Cohesive devices for connections among words, word flow, and clear wording
  7. Transitionals problemata: Common problems that East Asians students have with connectors / transitionals

1.2 References