Look at some paragraphs in the body of a sample article or research paper, and try to identify some of the paragraph forms. Which ones do you see? Why are they used in such a paper? What kinds of expressions do you see being typically used in these paragraph types?
- 1. Definition
- Introducing new or difficult concepts or terms; defining terms in order to establish a syllogism; establishing importance or relevance of an item; establishing a special meaning or relevance of terms as the author will use them in his/her argumentation.
- 2. Descriptive and narrative
- Explaining events, or describing a situation, especially with the writer’s viewpoint or evaluation implied.
- 3. Chronology
- Past background of a topic; establishing the relevance of a topic or issue.
- 4. Example / illustration / listing / enumerative
- How things are to be; describing characteristics; strengths or weakness of an item or concept.
- 5. Classification / categorization
- Explaining interrelationships of items as related members of a class or group.
- 6. Cause and effect
- Explaining results or implications of an item.
- 7. Process
- Explaining or describing an item or concept as a a logical sequence of steps, e.g., reports, experiments.
- 8. Contrast
- Describing differences among items, ideas or theories; showing how one item or idea is superior or inferior to another; evaluating ideas or items.
- 9. Comparison
- Describing similarities; supporting an idea by establishing similarities with already accepted ideas.
- 10. Analogy
- Illustrating a point with an illustration that would be easier for readers to understand, and that conveys relationships among items or ideas as the writer perceives them.
- 11. Critique / evaluation
- The writer examines ideas (or other things) to point out strengths and weaknesses, or positives and negatives, of particular ideas, theories, proposals, experiments, devices, or such. This can be done in order to argue for or against one of them, or to show the superiority of his/her own idea.
- 12. Deductive logic (syllogism)
- This is the classical type of logical argumentation from one point to another: if X and Y are true, then Z must be true.
- 13. Inductive logic
- Reasoning from evidence or points to a logical conclusion.
- 14. “Optimal / best inference” logic
- Arguing for X as the best explanation or conclusion; X works better than other possible explanations, or X best satisfies certain logical requirements that make it the most acceptable option.
- 15. Summary
- A concise overview, e.g., of the logical development of an idea.
- 16. Background
- Explanatory background information, e.g., historical background of an issue.
- 17. Argumentative
- Presenting claims and evidence.
- 18. Analytical
- Logical analysis of an issue.
- 19. Pro and con
- for and against X
- 20. Subjective
- personal, emotional, and/or first-person point-of-view
- 21. Intersubjective
- second person / 1st & 2nd person point-of-view
- 22. Observational
- A description or narration of what an observer sees, possibly with analytical comments
- 23. Other kinds?
1 Text features
What kinds of grammatical and lexical patterns do you see in the paragraphs in your paper? Why are they used? E.g.:
- Abstract nouns
- Concrete, physical nouns
- Gerunds (-ing verbs used as nouns, e.g., swimming)
- Nouns referring to actions, activities, or events
- Descriptive noun phrases (e.g., with many adjectives, other specifiers, or post-modifiers)
- Compound noun phrases
- Post-modified nouns (nouns followed by a modifier – a prepositional phrase, a participial phrase, relative clause, etc.)
- Other complex noun phrases
- Complex or compound sentences
- Particular types of verbs
- Certain verb tenses, e.g., simple present, simple past, perfect, pluperfect (past perfect)
- Certain modal verbs (can, could, should, would … ) or quasi-modal verbs (have to, ought to, need to … )
- Participial phrases
- Connector words / conjunctions (if, thus, since, although, however ...)
2 Connectors / transitionals
Now take a look at the more commonly used connective or transitional words and expressions used in your paper (see also the page on Connectors_(transitionals). Which kinds do you see? Do they tend to occur with certain paragraph forms, paper topics, or paper sections?
|1. Time / sequence||and, or, afterward, soon|
|2. Addition||and, as, also, furthermore|
|3. Place, direction||there, beyond, in the forefront|
|4. Repetition, emphasis, restatement||as mentioned, the aforementioned, that is|
|5. Exception||other than, except for|
|6. Example||for example, specifically, thus|
|7. Contrast||but, though, however, in contrast|
|8. Comparison||just as, likewise, similarly|
|9. Summary / conclusion||as a result, as shown, above all, in summary|
|10. Reason, purpose||because (of), since, due to, with this in mind|
|11. Cause, effect, result||so that, because, therefore, thereupon|
|12. Manner, similarity||likewise, accordingly, thereby, similarly, as if|
|13. Conditional||if, unless, in case of, whether|
- Compound sentence: A sentence formed from two clauses connected by coordinating conjunctions (and, but, so, or, etc.). Complex sentence: A sentence formed with a main clause plus a subordinate clause (which cannot exist by itself as a sentence; it begins with a subordinating conjunction like since, because, although, if, after, before, etc.). See the page on Sentence types.
- This is a phrase or clause with a participle rather than a main verb as its core, either a present or past participle. E.g.: (1) Present participle: This expensive new therapy burdens patients economically, eliminating their opportunity to receive treatment. (2) Past participle: Based on our assumptions, five factors were entered into the model.